Metal:Ferrous Non Ferrous and Alloys

Hello friends in these topic we will discuss about Ferrous Non Ferrous and Alloys so lets start from basic to end .
Ferrous Non Ferrous and Alloys is a types of Metal so it is necessary for us firstly some know about the Metal.


A metal is an element which is used in all work of engineering.
As, small as needle and as big as machines are made by metals.
Therefore, it is necessary for us to take the Knowledge of metals.

Ferrous Non Ferrous and Alloys

Types of Metal

Metal can be classified into three categories which is given below

•Non Ferrous


Those metals which have iron as constituent are known as ferrous metal.
Some ferrous metal is as follows.
first one is Pig iron and then Cast iron another ferrous metal is Wrought iron, we also considered Carbon steel and alloy steel as ferrous metal.

Non-ferrous Metals

Those metals which do not contain the iron as constituent are called non-ferrous metal.
Some examples
aluminium, cooper, brass, bronze, etc. of non-ferrous metals .


It is made of two or more elements intimately mixed.
One of these elements must be a metal and the other non-metallic.
Some examples are.
Vanadium steel, spring steel, duralumin, etc.

Now we will know from where iron is obtained 
So lets start

Iron Ore

Iron is obtained from mines.
This type of iron is not a refined iron because these irons contain another type of  materials likes oxygen, sulphur and many more.
Iron mixture obtained from mines is called ore.

Types of Iron Ore

Iron ores are of following types



Hematite is the type of  ore which is contain 60 to 65 Percentage of iron.
It is denoted by Chemical formula - Fe2O7.


Magnetite is also one of the  ore types which is contain iron percentage up to 70 to 73 percent .
And denoted by chemical formula - Fe3O4.


Limonite is one of the  ores which contain Percentage of iron up to 60 percent.


Siderite type of ore contain Percentage of iron 40 to 43 percent  and denoted by chemical formula FeCo3.


Pyrite type iron ore contain Percentage of iron up to 47 percent and denoted by chemical formula FeS2.

Types of Iron

It can be classified as follows

•Pig Iron
•Cast Iron
•Wrought Iron

Pig Iron

It is obtained by the chemical reduction of iron ore. It contains iron (92 to 95%), carbon (3 to 4%) and some impurities such as sulphur, phosphorous, silicon, etc. Generally, it is used for making steel and casting.

Pig iron is of three types as follows

•Grey pig iron
•White pig iron
•Mottled iron

Cast Iron

It can be produced by melting pig iron in a cupola crucible
In a cast iron contain carbon percentage up to 2 to 4%.
Cast iron material  is so  brittle and also very weak in tension. So, it is used in machine bases, tables and sideways.

There are six types of cast iron given below

•Grey cast iron
•White cast iron
•Malleable cast iron
•Nodular cast iron
•Mottled cast iron
•Alloy cast iron

Grey cast iron

(C-3 to 3.5%, Si -1 to 2.75%, Mn-0.40 to 19%, P-0.15 to 1%, S-0.02 to 0.15%).

White cast iron

(C-1.75 to 2.3%, Si-0.85 to 1.2% , Mn-0.10 to 0.4%, Pb-0.5 to 0.2 %, S-0.12 to 0.35%).

Malleable cast iron

(C-2 to 2.7%, Mn-0.25 to 1.25% , Si-l to 1.75%, S-0.03 to 0.18%, P-0.5%).

Nodular cast iron

(C-3.5 to 3.78%, Si- 2.4 to 2.85 %, Mn-0.02 to 0.06%, P -0.3 to 0.06%, S - 0.2 to 0.35%).

Mottled cast iron

(C-4.86 to 5.04%, Cr-2.66 to 5.01%, V-2.51 to 5.19%, Si-1.02 to 1.15%, Mg- 0.51 to 0.42%). 

Alloy cast iron

(C-1.75 to 4%, Ni-18%, Cu-7%).

Wrought Iron

It is made by melting white pig iron through puddling process in river battery furnace.
This is the purest form of iron. It contains iron 96.76 percent, carbon 0.10 percent, silicon 0.20percent, phosphorous 0.20 percent, manganese 0.01percent, sulphur 0.03% and slag 2.70%.


It is an alloy of iron and carbon with the carbon content varying up to 1.5%.

Mainly steel is of the following two types

1. Plain steel

2. Alloy steel

Plain Steel

This type of steel mixed with Carbon & Steel. Further Plane steel sub-categorised through percentage of carbon content.
First one is Low carbon steel.
Second is Medium carbon steel 
and last one is High carbon steel.

Alloy Steel

It is mainly of two types, which is given below

(i)Low Alloy Steel
(ii)High Alloy Steel

Low Alloy Steel

It can be hardened and tempered.
It is used in manufacturing various part of an aeroplane and camshaft, etc.

High Alloy Steel

Besides carbon it has a high percentage of the metal higher than low steel alloy.

This is of following types given below

•High Speed Steel
•Nickel Steel
•Vanadium Steel
•Manganese Steel
•Stainless Steel
•Silicon Steel
•Cobalt Steel

High Speed Steel

Which is also known as High Tungsten Alloy Steel.

Tungsten - 22%
Chromium - 4%
Vanadium - 1%

high speed steels  are mostly used for making the cutting tools which is performed in different - different manufacturing operation.

Nickel Steel

Carbon — 0.3%
Nickel — 0.25 to 0.35%.

It is used for making rivets, pipes, axle shafting and part of buses, etc.

Vanadium Steel

Carbon - 1.5%
Tungsten - 12.5%
Chromium - 4.5%
Vanadium - 5%
Cobalt - 5%.

•It is used to manufacture tools.
•Vanadium steel is also used for making grinding wheel.

Manganese Steel

Composition Manganese-1.6% to 1.9%
Carbon-0.4 to 0.5%.

It is used in industries for different-different purpose like grinder and rail point etc.

Stainless Steel

Carbon — 0.2 to 0.6%
Chromium -12 to 18% Nickel -8% Molybdenum — 2%

It is used for making scissors, utensils, pipes and gears, etc.

Silicon Steel

Silicon -14%

It is generally used in making of the electric motor, generators and electric laminations of transformers.

Cobalt Steel

Cobalt -5 to 35%

It is used to make the permanent magnets.

Useful Non-ferrous Metals

These metals are not attracted by the magnet.
Some non-ferrous metals are as follows.



•Its Melting Point 660° C.
•It is used in transportation industry, machine parts and as reducing agent as well as also used in making electrical product like led aluminium profile, aluminium wire.


Copper divided in three categories according to the form of ore are as follows

•In the form of oxide - Cuprite or red copper.
•In the form of sulphide - Copper glance and copper pyrites.
•In the form of carbonate - Malamite and azurite.

•Its Melting Point 1083° C. 
•It is tensile and malleable. 
•It is used in the parts of electronics, telephone and refrigerator.


ZnO - 80% Zn
ZnS - 67% Zn
ZNCO3 - 54% Zn
ZnO.Fe2O3 - 6.18% Zn

•Melting Point 420° C.
•It is used in the galvanizing of steel
and die-casting.


Tin stone or cassiterite (SnO2)

•Melting Point 232° C.
•At a temperature of 100° C, it becomes ductile and malleable. 
•It is used to make the mirrors.


Horn silver, ruby silver, silver glass,argentatite.

•Melting Point 960° C.
•It is ductile and malleable. 
•It is used to make the soldering and brazing alloy.


Lead sulphide (galena),lead-carbonate (cerussite) , lead sulphate (anglesite).

•Melting Point 320° C.
•It is ductile and malleable. 
•It is used in gun bullets.

So friends here I discussed about Ferrous Non ferrous and alloys I hope you all clearly understand this topic.

Thank you 

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