Different Planing Operation on Planer Machine

Hello, friends in this article you will learn different planing operation which is performed in the planer machine.

A Planer machine is used to do heavy work or to take heavy cuts.

The cutting tools used in a planing operation are all single-point cutting tools.

Planing operation is often used to perform two types of tasks; making perfect flat surfaces and cutting slots such as keyways.

Before knowing planing operations first we need to know what is a planar machine, what terms used in planing operations.

So without wasting time let's get started.

What is Planer Machine?

A planer machine is a manufacturing machine that performs different planing operation that is used to make flat surfaces and slots through single-point cutting tools.

Nowadays, planer machines are fully automated and work on CNC machining.

Terms Used in Planing Operation

There are following terms are used during planing operations:
  • Cutting Speed ​​
  • Feed
  • Depth of Cut 

Cutting Speed ​​

It is the rate at which the metal is cut during the forward cutting stroke. 

It is expressed in m/min.  


It is the distance in which the tool head moves during each cutting stroke and is expressed in mm per double stroke. 

Depth of Cut 

It is the thickness of metal that is cut into one cut that is measured by the perpendicular distance between the machined and unmachined surface and expressed in mm.

Planing Operation of Planer Machine

Planing machine operations are similar to operations performed on a shaper.

The only difference is that the planer is specially designed for machining large work, while the shaper can only machine small work.  

In this operation, the tool remains stationary and the job continues to reciprocate completely with the table.

These operations are done on reciprocating machines and the cutting operation is done in forward stroke and the return stroke is idle stroke.

Usually, the following planing operations are done on the planer machine:
  • Planing of Horizontal Surfaces 
  • Planing of Vertical Surfaces 
  • Planing of Angular Surfaces
  • Planing of curved surfaces
  • Planing of Slots and Grooves

Planing of Horizontal Surfaces 

In this planing operation, the work is clamped rigidly to the table and reciprocating along with the table.

The tool is held in the tool post and the tool is continuously fed crosswise to complete the machining of the whole area.

Shown in the figure.

planing operation

Planing of Vertical Surfaces 

In the planing of vertical surfaces, the vertical slide of the tool post is adjusted perpendicular to the planer table to the machine's vertical surface. 

Show in a figure.

planing operation of planer machine

Planing of Angular Surfaces

In this operation, the tool is fed at an angle by rotating the down feed screw and the tool head is swiveled to the required angle.

planing operation on planer machine

Planing of Curved Surfaces

The planer can also be used to make a convex surface, concave surface, or a combination thereof.  

If the contour is small, a forming tool is used.  In case of large surface power cross-feed with manual down feed is used.

Planing of Slots and Grooves

Using the appropriate tool, a planer can also be used to cut slots or grooves on a workpiece or to cut external keyways on shafts and internal keyways on pulleys or gears. 

The square nose tool is used to cut slots or keyways, which is similar to the parting tool.  
To cut the internal keyway, the tool is actuated on a special tool holder so that the tool does not collide with the workpiece at the end of the stroke.

Advantages of Planing Operation

  1. It has Greater accuracy
  2. Low maintenance is required
  3. Good surface finish
  4. More than one tool can perform on the workpiece at a time.

Disadvantages of Planing Operation

  1. Only external surfaces can be machined.
  2. Occupies more area on the floor.

So friends here I have discussed different planing operations on planer machines with their advantages and disadvantages.

I hope you all like this post.

Thank You.

Post a Comment