Mechanical Properties of Materials

Hello friends,here in this article we will discuss Mechanical Properties of Materials so let's get started with that.

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Rather than mechanical properties of materials firstly we are discussed some point of materials physical properties.

Physical Properties of Materials

•Fusibility

•Colour

•Weight

•Specific gravity

Fusibility

It is property of a material by which it melts when external heat is applied. 

Many materials are subjected to transformation in shape from solid to liquid at different temperatures.

Like Tin has a low melting temperature (232°C) and tungsten melts at a high temperature. (3370°C)

Colour

Different material considered many types of different colours.

For example, copper is of a distinctive red colour.

Mild steel is of a blue/black sheen.

Weight

Different material has a different weight.

Like aluminium, weights lighter (specific gravity 2.8) than many others and a material, like lead, is heavy (specific gravity 9)

Specific gravity

It is ratio between a weight of a metal and the weight of equal volume of water.

List of  Mechanical properties of materials

•Stiffness

•Elasticity

•Plasticity

•Ductility

•Brittleness

•Malleability

•Toughness

•Hardness

•Creep

•Fatigue

•Strength

Now these are mechanical properties which we have and see when we are studying machine design or materials science and strength of materials in that subject also we need to learn some basic mechanical properties so that we can understand behaviour of materials so here as I have mentioned we would be dealing with these properties in detail and we need to have deep knowledge of them so that we can understand  behaviour of some materials now let's get started with first Mechanical properties of materials that is called as Stiffness.

Stiffness

It is ability of matter or substance to resist deformation under the action of loads.

Its unit is

N/mm or KN/mm

Stiffness is given by  formula

K = Load/deflection

where K is denotes stiffness.

most common

example of stiffness is spring in which when we applied loads than it opposes deforming and after removing loads its sustain original shape

now after stiffness next Mechanical properties of materials which we have it is called as elasticity

Elasticity

Its a property by which a material changes its a shape when load is applied and will regain its original shape when load is removed.

So this is definition of elasticity it means when we apply load like for example, a rubber if I am applying a load over this if I'm pulling This rubber then its shape will change and  moment I remove load it will come back to its original shape that is meaning of elasticity.

Elasticity is measured by a term called as Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity and

its unit will be given by

 N/mm^2

or

KN/mm^2

so this was regarding elasticity Young's modulus decides how much elastic is for example if Young's modulus is very high it means that is very elastic if Young's modulus value is less it means that it will behave in a less elastic manner.

after this definition we have next Mechanical properties of materials which is called as Plasticity.

Plasticity

It is a properties of material that enables it to undergo permanent deformation at certain stages of working.

It means you are in case of plasticity  will not gain it is not able to regain its original shape like for example a thin iron rod  if I am applying a load and pulling This rod then its shape will change and moment I remove  load it will not regain its original shape means when  load was applied  shape has changed that change in shape will remain permanently so we have understood that plasticity is nothing but it is a permanent.

For example, through the forging process, the permanent deformation achieves a particular shape.

As material is unable to regain its original shape so it comes under a category of permanent deformation.

This is a very important consideration like whatever we are using for machine design that  they should not operate in a region where  deformation would be plastic that is they are not allowed to behave in a plastic manner it means whatever machines we are saying they are designed on the concept of elasticity that is they should regain their original shape when  load is removed they should not behave in a plastic manner so.

next after this next property which I have here Mechanical properties of materials it is called as Ductility

Ductility

It is property by which a matter or substance can be drawn into wires without breaking.

Whatever wires we are saying like in case of electrical connection those wires  with the help of which they are made  it is called as a ductile  so here I can say that ductile have ability when  load is applied  material will elongate it will change its shape.

example

Copper wires use in electric cables

Copper wires which we are using in case of electrical connections they are all ductile materials because we can convert them into wires and they have ability to flow like for example this copper wire which is made up of ductile material when I would be applying  load  this copper wire will change its shape and more amount of tension I apply pull this  it will get elongated and converted into more thin wires so again ductility is also a very important Mechanical property apart from copper wires.

we can see that aluminium which is soft  is also a ductile matter.

aluminium since soft it can also be considered as a ductile  and we can use aluminium to convert  into wires    so this was one of  important Mechanical properties

After ductility we have brittleness.

Brittleness

It is a property by which a material resists heavy loads when smoothly applied, they will readily break at any point.

So brittle are those in which when we are applying  load either they can break suddenly or cracks would be developed in that substances.

For example if we are having concrete and we apply tensile force if you're trying to pull concrete then it will break suddenly similarly if there is wood when we are pulling that it can break suddenly on the application of  load so that is nothing but brittle it and I can even say that cast iron since it contains more amount of carbon it behaves as a brittle material because more amount of carbon we add two metals more brittle they become  brittle on the application of  slight load they can break suddenly that is without giving any prior warning.

next property is malleability again like ductility, malleability is also  property which is desired in mechanical properties so that we can convert them into any shape.

Malleability

It is properties by which metals are able to be beaten for converted into thin sheets

So here I have written about malleability that it is a properties by which metals are able to be beaten or converted into thin sheets see whatever sheets of metal which we ask that metal it has a property of malleability that is why it is converted into sheets like I have given you  example of ductility in ductility having  by which they can be converted into thin wires in case of malleability  materials they have  that they can be converted into thin sheets of metal which we can use in some of  applications like Steel,Copper,Aluminium,Brass Bronze.

next definition of Mechanical properties of materials is Toughness.

Toughness

It is property of material due to which it has  ability to resist fractures due to high impact loads.

Toughness is decreases when material is heated.

It means that toughness is by which is able to resist shock or impact loading.

Next we have which is called as hardness.

hardness is opposite of toughness.

Hardness

It is property of material by which it can resist scratches, marks or wear and tear.

This is regarding hardness that it is by which  is able to resist scratches marks or wear and tear.

hardness is not dependent on materials weight.

That means hardness is independent of the weight of substance.

So we cannot say that if a certain is heavy it means it will be hard if it is light then hardness will be less we cannot say this because hardness is independent of  weight of  material and like for example if I have  two different types of metal plate one is  mild steel and second one is stainless steel plate  if I want to decide their hardness then I would be scratching I would be marking on each of metal plate and if I am able to Mark very easily or I can able to scratch for example Mild steel plate  if I am able to scratch this easily it means it is less hard or  if scratching stainless steel plate is difficult it means it is more hard so hardness is regarding  scratches or wear and Tear which is produced on surface.

This property is mostly preferred while designing components which slide over one another so when we have two components and out of that one is sliding over other than surface contact is more and we require hard material because of if a material is shoft and then there is sliding taking place then there will be more scratches where so in case of hardness we should be aware that if material is hard it means it should be able to resist scratches and wear and tear.

next after hardness we discuss about Mechanical properties of materials is creep

Creep

It is ability of a material to resist high or extremely high temperatures.

So as from definition I think it is very much clear that any which is able to resist high amount of temperature that we will say that it is creep resistance and if it changes its shape when temperature is high then it would be called as it is not able to resist high temperature

example where we require creep resistance  like IC engines that is internal combustion engines next boilers and furnaces, steam turbines require creep resistance

next one is fatigue

Fatigue

It is property of a material to resist repeatable & fluctuating load.

It means if we have a machine or an element on which load is repeatable that is repeated in a cycle and also it is fluctuating load is constantly changing from minimum value to maximum value then what happens material would be fatigue and it will break so here I can say that IC engine that is internal combustion engines are constantly under fatigue.

And now next one is strength

Strength

Strength is ability of a material to with stand a load without fracture.

These mechanical properties of materials are very important in mechanical engineering if you want to know how become a mechanical engineer then you can check - Mechanical engineer kaise bane


I hope that you all like these topic Mechanical properties of materials if any query you can ask me by comment or mailed I definitely replied.


FAQ for Mechanical Properties of Materials

Which property of a solid to sustain shock load without permanent deformation?

Toughness is the properties of solid materials which has tendency to sustain shock load without  any permanent deformation.

What is the property of a material to resist permanent indentation?

To resist permanent indentation property of material is hardness.

Is the property that enables a material to withstand shock and to deform without rupturing?

The property of materials which has enables a material to withstand shock without rupturing is that toughness.

What material can be permanently deformed without breaking?

Material which has properties of a plasticity it can be deformed permanently without breaking.

Is stress a material property?

Stress is a resistance which offered by a body or any material when any type of external force applied on it.

So, we can say that stress is not a material property.

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