Forging Process-Types of Forging,Forging Operation

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Today’s topic related with the manufacturing processes and here we are talking about a Forging process.  

In which we will know in details types of forging process, accessories of forging and various forging operation.

Forging process is a very important part of manufacturing process which is used for making the variety of the products which are extensively used like crank, crank shafts for the automobile and connecting rods, also wrenches or spanners which are used for assembling and disassembling purposes, crane hooks, etc.

So lets start today’s topic Forging Process

Definition of Forging Process

Forging is one of the oldest methods to produce shape from the red-hot metal.

Generally, hammers are used for shaping the parts of an object.

Forging process can be defined as the process in which deforms the permanent metal and get in desired shape.

Clearly see in the figure where black smith deform the red hot metal and get into desired shape.

Forging Process
Black Smith Forging

Classification of Forging

It can be classified into three categories

1.Cold forging

2.Warm forging

3.Hot forging

1.Cold forging

In this method forging is done at atmospheric or room temperature.

2.Warm forging

In this method forging is done above atmospheric or room temperature but below recrystallization temperature of matter.

3.Hot forging

In this method forging is done above recrystallization temperature of matter.

Types of Forging Process

Forging Process
Types of Forging


Forging can be divided into four parts

1.Smith forging or Open die Forging

2.Drop forging or Closed die Forging

3.Press Forging

4.Machine Forging or Upset Forging

1.Smith forging or Open die Forging

Smith forging is basically related with the black smith which live in villages earlier, this is the traditional method.

Black smith used to heat the metal stock and heated metal stock is repeatedly beated to manipulate the flow of molten metal so as to get the desired size and shape.

Smith Forging largely depends upon the skill of the black smith. 

So for this smith forging process, the skill of the operator or skill of the black smith is very important. 

Another thing is that this process is good for the small volume that means when few numbers of the products are to be made, not for the very large volume because if you have to make very few numbers of the products, then making the die will be a costly issue.

So, it will be important that instead of making the die for making few products, better to use the smith forging process so that it can be made economically.

2.Drop forging or Closed die Forging

In a smith forging process basically the flat surfaces are used.

While in case of the drop forging, close dies are used. 

So, here according to the shape of the product to be made, we will have to make by upper die and lower die. So, this will be placed over the table of the press.

After placing the metal between the die then force is applied through the upper die onto the stock until the die closes.

So, here the force is applied in repeated manner means three to four numbers of the impacts are applied onto the stock with the help of the upper half of the die so that the die is closed. 

Once the die is closed, we will be getting the product of the shape.

3.Press Forging

Press forging also uses the close dies means an upper and a lower die and the metal is placed between the upper and the lower dies.

So after the application of the pressure, the dies is closed and the shape is desired.

In the earlier case, in drop forging  impacts were applied in repeated manner through the upper die but in this case, continuous increasing pressure by squeezing action.  

Here more smoother surface is generated in the press forged products as compared to the drop forged products.

4.Machine Forging or Upset Forging

Machine forging is basically used for making the head of the bolts

So at the top if we need to bolt, we need to upset and make the head. 

For making the heads of the bolts, this process was initially used and thereafter it has been used for making many other the products like the axles, spindles and number of the components having the like where is upsetting is needed. 

The axles, spindles, head of the bolts are the common examples of the machine forging products.

During forging process we found desired shape and at the same time also some portion of metal’s properties has changed so you also must know about mechanical properties of materials or metals.

In forging process there are so many types of  forging operation performed with the help of forging accessories and forging tools.

So, let’s know about accessories of forging and forging tools before knowing forging operation.

Accessories of Forging 

Forging have different accessories here we discussed most important accessories which is known by forge and is discuss below

•Forge

Forge 

Forge is a type of furnace in which, job is placed for heating. 

The forge supplies heat for raise the temperature of the metal to be forged.

It is made up of mild layer of steel and angle in which tuyer coal tank is made from fire bricks and clay.

There are two types of forge such as

Stationary forge 

Portable forge 

Types of Forging Tools Used in Forge

Different types of forging tools are used with forge, which are as follows

•Blower

•Rake

•Shovel

•Poker

•Sprinkler

•Fuels

Blower

For proper combustion of fuel, the efficient and adequate supply of air at proper pressure required, which is fulfilled by blower. 

Generally it is used, when small quantity of air is needed.

Rake

It is used to pull the charged fuel over the job, It have rectangular shape of flat bent in the front side with 90°.

Shovel 

It is used to place coal or coke in the furnace as well as remove ash from furnace.

Poker 

It is used to remove clinkers from the furnace. It is a rod at which one end pointed and turned.

Sprinkler

It is used to localise the heat. The outer ring of the fire is kept wet so that, the heat is concentrained in the middle of the hearth.

Fuels

For heating the metal, many fuels are used. The most common fuels are coal, coke, charcoal, oil and fuel. 

Types of Forging Tools Used in Smithy Shop or Forging 

Many types of forging tools are used in smithy shop other than forge, which are discussed below

•Anvil

•Swage Block

•Tongs

•Hammer

•Chisel

•Swage

•Fuller

•Flatter

•Punch

•Drift

•Leg Vice

Anvil

The anvil is a heavy block of cast steel, which is used in forging sheet. 

Swage Block

It is a square block made up of cast iron or steel. 

Tongs 

Tongs are made up of mild steel or medium carbon steel. 

These are used for keeping the heated metal piece as well as for gripping or turning the workplace during forging.

Hammer 

A hammer is a tool which are used to strike, crush and hammering the job. 

According to the different shapes of hammers, they are classified into three types which are as follows

• Hand hammer

• Power hammer

• Sledge hammer 

Chisel 

Chisels are made up of high carbon steel.

There are different type of chisels and each has a particular use, which are as follows

• Cold chisel

• Gauge chisel 

•Hot chisel 

Swage

Swage is use for reduce or finished round, square or hexagonal form. It made with half grooves of dimensions to suit t work being reduced.

Fuller 

Fullers are made up of high carbon steel having different types of shapes.

It is used for grooving and drawing down of the thin portions of a forging against shoulder. 

Flatter

It is made up of high carbon steel and available in various sizes from 50 to 75 mm.

It is similar to the hammer and its down parts are flat and wide. It is used to make the surface of metal flat. 

Punch 

Punches are the types of marking tools which is used to make holes of any shape and size (round, square, oral or rectangular) on hot and cold metal. 

Drift 

Drifts are made up of steel tool, which is hardened and tempered.

It is used for finishing the size of the punched holes. They are made taper and bulging in the at centre. 

Leg Vice 

Leg vice is  used in a forging process for bending  work. 

Forging Operation

In forging operation By the help of forging tools and heating effect, we can change the shape of a substance according to the requirement, which are 

Forging Process

•Drawing Out

•Upsetting

•Bending

•Punching

•Drifting

•Forge Welding

•Cutting

Drawing Out

Drawing out is used to reduce the thickness of a bar and increase its length.

Upsetting

Upsetting is a forging operation by which the length of a piece of metal is reduced, and its cross-sectional area is increased. 

This is the most widely used in forging processes.

Three types of up setting are applied in forging such as

• End upsetting

• Jumping

• Centre upsetting

Bending

It is a method by which steel may be bend to form various shapes without damage to its structure.

The method of bending involves the use of anvil edge, a block of metal held in the hardie hole or in a vice.

Punching

This process is used for making holes in metal plate, which is placed over the hollow cylindrical die. 

By pressing the punch over the plate, the hole is done.

Drifting

It is the process, which is used for finishing the size of the punched hole with the help of drifts.

Forge Welding

In this operation joining two metal through heating and hammering.

There are four types of joints made by welding such as

butt joint, Lap joint, V-joint, T-joint.

Forge welding joint more strongest than soldering and brazing.

Cutting

It is a method to cut a metal by chisel and hammer, when the metal is gaining high temperature and visible as a red.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Forging Process

Advantages

•Forge parts possess high ductility and offer great resistance.

•Forging refines the structure of metal.

• The forged part metal welding is so easy.

Disadvantages

• Tolerance is not maintaining accurately in this process.

• Some materials do not properly worked by forging.

• The initial and maintenance cost of forging dies are very high.


In this topic, I have talked about the forging process and their types, operation, etc.

If have any doubt then ask me through comment.


Thank you


FAQ for a Forging Process

Roll forging is done with the help of?

Roll forging is the type of forging which is done with the help of cylindrical and as well as semi cylindrical rolls.


Which of the following forging process is used by blacksmith found in villages?

Smith forging which is also known as open die forging generally done by blacksmith which lives in villages.


What is smith forging?

Smith forging is a type of forging process which is done by blacksmith and it's also called as a open die forging.


In which forging process, parts are heated in open hearth?

Parts are heated in open hearth by smith forging process which is also called as hand forging.


In which forging process, parts are heated in closed hearth?

Parts are heated in closed hearth by drop forging process which is also called as closed die forging.


Drawing out is a forging operation used?

Drawing out is a forging operation used to increase the length of a bar and reduced thickness.


Which of the forging operation is used to form heads on bolts?

Forging operation is used to form heads on bolts by upset forging which is also called as a machine forging.


Which type of forging is done by deforming the metal at room temperature?

Type of forging is done by deforming the metal at room temperature is called the cold forging.


Swaging is another name for which smith forging operation?

Swaging is nothing but it is a drawing out operation in which increases the length of metal or bar and decreases thickness.


The forging process that is generally used for producing hexagonal or round heads of bolts is?

The forging process that is generally used for producing hexagonal or round heads of bolts is called upset forging.


Drop forging is used to produce?

Drop forging is generally used to produce hammer, spanner, wrenches and also used to making a part of vehicles, aeroplane, etc.


What is hand forging?

Hand forging is nothing but it is a Smith forging which is also known as open die forging.


For which purpose, hand forging is used?

Hand forging is basically used where small amount of product required to be made.

And also this forging process less costly as compared to other forging process.


In forging the material of anvil is/are?

In forging the material of anvil is used cast steel.


The forging operation of upsetting is?

The forging operation of upsetting is generally used to making a head of bolt.


What is the process of forging?

Forging process is a type of manufacturing in which shaping the metal through particular deformation.


What are the different types of forging processes?

There are so many types of forging like ,smith forging,closed die forging,press forging etc.


Which type of forging is done by blacksmith?

Open die type of forging is done by blacksmith which is also called smith forging.


What are the advantages of forging process?

Through forging process achieved a desired shape and also improve properties of materials.


What is roll forging?

When metal is passed through in between a driven rolls then metal is pressed and found a desired shape this type of forging is known as roll forging.

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