Different types of fasteners and their uses

Hello friends, Today I will discuss about Fasteners, in which we will know in details about Different Types of Fasteners and their uses.


Fasteners is very important in any industry to join one part to another part. There are so many different types of fasteners used in industry as per requirement which we will know further in detail.

In machine some parts can be permanently fixed while some parts are temporary because they need to open and close. So that we can use different types of fasteners.

Generally fastening is a process used for holding together two parts of a machine or a structure weather temporary or permanent or in other words we can say that it has helps to assemble and dis-assemble the parts as per requirement.

Like Lathe machine, Drilling machine and much more.


Different types of Fasteners

Generally Fasteners can be divide into three categories

 Temporary Fasteners

 Semi-permanent Fasteners

 Permanent Fasteners


Temporary Fasteners

These fasteners are easy to allow unfastening of the parts connected without damaging the full elements.

Some components are used for temporary Fastening which are as follows

Bolt

Screw

Nuts

Washer

Stud

Pin

Keys

See in figure different different types of temporary fasteners

Different types of fasteners and their uses
Temporary Fasteners


Bolt

Bolt has a solid head at one end and is fitted with a thread at the other on which washer and nut are placed to secure it.

The important types of bolts are
Hexagonal headed bolt ,square headed  bolt, round bolt, cylindrical or cheese headed bolt, T headed Bolt, eye bolt, hook bolt, foundation bolt and counter sunk headed bolt.

Bolts are basically used to join one flange to another flange, parts of machine, etc.

Screw

A screw is a one of the type of fastener which is generally used to join the thin sheet or metal.

Screw drivers and wrenches are used as common tools to tighten it.

According to the shape and uses, screws are of different types such as Cap screw, collar screw and shoulder screw etc.

 Nuts

A nut is a device which is used with a bolt or a stud bolt to join and tightened two or more parts together temporarily is called as nut.

It is a special shaped material used to lock the bolt.

The common types of nuts are hexagonal nut,square nut, flange nut, cough nut, capstan nut, ring nut, knurled nut, fly and lock nut, etc.


Note: The bolts and nuts are always opened and tightened by different types of spanners.

Washer

A washer is used in between Bolt and nut to give a smooth bearing surface and increase surface contact area by which loading between bolt and nut decreases.

The washer also prevents the nut from cutting into the metal and this allows nut to be tightened to a greater extent.

Stud

A stud is like a screw but it does not have a head. Studs are used in such places where a component is assembled or de clamped very often.

Studs come in the following types; plain, collared, square cross-section plain and hexagonal socket head studs, etc.

Pin

A pin is normally a rounded piece of metal that joins two separate, hinged object together. There are many types of pins such as solid, hollow, split, gudgeon and dowel pin, etc.


Keys

Keys are used to locate pulleys or gears on a shaft and prevent relative movement between them. The key can be withdrawn, at will to engage the mating components.

According to the key fitting it is of two types sunk and saddle key.

Semi-permanent Fasteners

All fastening methods, in which fastening may get damaged but not the job. This is used whenever a little chance to re-open the joints. E.g., soldering, riveting.

Semi-permanent Fasteners joint can be categorised into three parts which as follows

1. Riveted Joint

2. Folded Joint

3. Solder Joint

See in figure all different types of semi-permanent fasteners

different types of fasteners and their uses
Semi-Permanent Fasteners

Riveted Joint

Riveted joint is used for joining material like sheets, plates, etc.
In riveted joint Drill or punch method is used to joining any sheets or plates.

There are three types of Riveted joints.

(i) Lap Joint

(ii) Butt Joint

(iii) Caulking and Fullering of Riveted Joint

Lap Joint

In Lap joining method join sheets or plates by overlapping the two surfaces.

Lap joint can be divided into two parts

Single row lap joint

Double row lap joint

Butt Joint

An extra sheet is used to joint the both of the joining plates or sheets. 

Caulking and Fullering of Riveted Joint

Caulking and fullering of a riveted joint is a method in which joint are done with fine efficiency without any leakage which is known as a leak proof joint. 

Leak proof joint to be made through hammered manually or using a power hammer. And fullering tool is used to spread the ends.

This type of joint mostly used in steam boiler,air and water storage tank.

Folded Joint

With the help of this method, very thin metal sheets or plates are jointed. These joints
are used for joining the boxes, tubs, crockery, etc.

Solder Joint

Soldering is one of the oldest methods, used for forming a joint.

This is the best one method for light weight
joints. Solder is used for the alloy, consisting
tin and lead. Melting point range of this process is from 135 to 325° C.


Permanent Fasteners

This process is done, whenever no chance of
the re-opening of joints.

After disassembling this joint, both job and fastener get damaged. E.g., Welding, brazing, etc.

Following methods are used for permanent fasteners

Brazing

Welding

See in figure permanent types of fasteners

Different types of fasteners and their uses
Permanent Fasteners


 Brazing

It is such as the soldering but has stronger
joints.

It is called hard solder. It mainly consists of copper and zinc.

Sometime silver is used to improve the soldering quality.


Welding

Welding is the process of joining two or more metal parts by melting them up to fusion temperature. 

Pressure may be applied or isn't according to the necessity.


Welding is classified into following parts

Plastic or Pressure Welding

Fusion or Non- pressure Welding 

Plastic or Pressure Welding

In this process, joining ends are heated upon melting point then pressure to fix ends. So that filler metal is required.

Fusion Welding

This welding is also known as non-pressure welding. In this method, metals are heated upon the melting point.

And in this process there is no any need to applied pressure.


Assembly Techniques

Assembly technique is a combination of methods, which are used for assembling the machines,their parts and equipments.

The assembling is a process by which the different parts of a machine are assembled together to form a unit.

The various types of assembly techniques are discussed below


Aligning

Bending

Sealing

Fixing

Thread Cutting

Jointing


Aligning

Aligning is a process in which we arrange the components in the straight line to improve the work accuracy. Generally, it is necessary for shafts in machines because without alignment machine shafts can not work properly.

Bending

When the force is applied at a point or part of an object, then the object changes its shape into curved or angular form from the straight form or vice-versa, then the process is known as bending.

Sealing

Mechanical Seal is a device which is used in any machine or equipment to prevent from leakage. 

Generally this type of seal basically used in rotating type equipment like pump, mixer, blower and as well as compressor.

A mechanical seal must contain four functional components, are as, follows. Primary sealing surface, secondary sealing surface, actuation, drive, etc.

Fixing

Whenever a job is to be holding at a position for a specific time, fixing process is used. In fixing, a workpiece is hold tightly to perform an operation.

E.g., A fixture is used to hold the job which is designed based on the shape of the worktable and job as well.
 

Thread Cutting

Thread cutting is a process in which producing a groove cutting around a cylinder or any bolts, studs, etc.
This is done by taking successive light cuts with a thread cutting tool bit of the same shape as the thread form.

Jointing

Jointing is a process used for holding together two parts of a machine or a structure.

It also helps to disassemble the parts as per the requirement.
By this process, we can assemble the mechanical parts with each other.


So, friends I hope you all clearly knowing about different types of fasteners and their uses also get to some idea about assembly techniques.

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