Operation of Lathe Machine and Their Parts and Function

Hello friends in this topic I will talk about Operation of Lathe Machine.

Before knowing operation of lathe machine First of all, we have to know important parts of lathe machine, So that we can better understand operation of lathe machine.

Lathe machine is the most versatile machine, which is widely being used in industries. 

The main purpose of the Lathe machine is to rotate a workpiece or a job to give desired shape by performing some operations on a lathe.

There are so many types of lathe machine used in industries such as, Bench type lathe ,centre lathe,capstan lathe, turret lathe etc.

But now a days CNC type lathe most widely use in industry because this type of lathe is fully automatic.

In this type of lathe one time programming is set after that operation of lathe machine continuously performed till the end.

In this topic we will only discussed about the lathe machine as well as operation of lathe machine. 

so lets start 

Definition of Lathe Machine

Lathe machine is a manufacturing type of machine in which so many operation is performed to make any metal or part to its desired shape.

Besides this Forging,welding,casting etc. also part of manufacturing.

Lathe machine is consist of different types of part which is given below

Parts of Lathe Machine

Here we discuss some important parts of lathe machine which is useful for performing operation of lathe machine as follows

  • Bed
  • Head stock 
  • Spindle 
  • Carriage 
  • Tail stock
  • Tool Post 
  • Chuck

See in figure parts of lathe machine which is described in below

Operation of Lathe Machine
Parts of Lathe Machine


Bed is basically base of the lathe machine which is made by a cast iron the whole load of the lathe is tackle by a bed.

Which is clearly shown in block diagram of lathe.

Head stock 

Head stock placed in a left side of the lathe machine. 

In head stock mainly parts are attached such as Lever, gear box and chuck which is used to perform lathe machine operation(see in fig).


Spindle is the part of lathe machine which provide rotational speed of workpiece or a job.


Carriage contain mainly five parts like saddle ,apron, compound slide ,cross slide and tool post.(see in fig)

Carriage basically provide movement of tool in different direction such that make any shape of workpiece or a job.

Tail stock

Tail stock is placed right hand side of the lathe machine. 

It is applied when heavy job or workpiece used for lathe operation than tail stock used to hold it.

Tool Post

Tool post is the part of carriage which is used to hold the any type of tool for performing operation of a lathe.


Chuck is a one of the type of a work holding device which is used in lathe machine operation for holding the workpiece or a job.

These lathe machine part helped to perform different operation of lathe machine.

Operation of Lathe Machine

The various operation of Lathe Machine are performed such as follows

  • Straight Turning 
  • Step Turning
  • Taper Turning 
  • Eccentric Turning
  • Facing
  • Grooving
  • Under Cutting 
  • Knurling
  • Relieving
  • Drilling Operation
  • Reaming
  • Boring 
  • Grinding

See in figure operation of lathe machine which is described below.

Operation of Lathe Machine
Different types of Lathe Machines Operation

Straight Turning 

In the straight turning operation workpiece is turned straight when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis and the tool is feed parallel to the lathe axis. 

You can clearly seen in the figure in turning operation where the tool feeding direction is parallel to the axis of the lathe.  

In straight turning operation cylindrical type surface made by removing excess material from the workpiece.

It is of types such as rough turning and finishing turning. 

Step Turning

Step turning is the process of turning which is produces different surfaces diameter. 

The workpiece is held between centres and the tool is moved parallel to the axis of the lathe. 

It is also called shoulder turning.

Taper Turning 

In a taper turning the operation of lathe machine performed in a manner of uniform increasing the diameter of a workpiece or a job to along its length.

For the taper turning, we can use the following taper turning methods

  • By using from tool
  • By using compound slide 
  • By using taper turning attachment 
  • By displacing the tail stock 

Eccentric Turning

If any cylindrical job has two or more in different types of axis and their centres are different from its axis, it is called eccentric workpiece components. 

The process of turning such as eccentric components is called eccentric turning.


Facing is the operation of a lathe machine in which produces flat surfaces to cut the metal square with axis.

In facing operation feeding tool is always perpendicular to the axis of the rotation of a job or a workpiece.

Facing operation also can be done in milling machine through milling cutters that is known as face milling.


In grooving process produces narrow groove on the cylindrical surface of the workpiece. 

Seen in figure where grooved is made in a nut and bolt after performing operation of lathe machine.

In grooving process produces a groove like a square, radial and also in a bevelled type shape.

Grooves are also can be made by slotting machine.

Under Cutting 

The process of internal cutting in a hole is called under cutting. 

The under cutting is widely used for internal threading and cutting a groove.

See in a figure grooved nut and bolt made after operation of lathe machine.

Like threading in a nut, bolt or internal machine part.


Knurling is done by pressing the two hardened steel wheels called knurls and the process of impressing the straight indentations on the surface of a workpiece is called knurling. 

It is widely used for external coarse surfaces of the measurement devices, gauges and other equipment’s to easy grip.

See in a figure knurling  screw is made after performing operation of lathe machine.


This process is used for relieving the teeth of a cutting tool. 

To do this process on the general lathe, a relieving attachment is used.

Drilling Operation

In this process, drill bit tool is used for drilling the workpiece. 

After drilling, a lathe machine provides the other operations such as tapping, boring, internal threading, etc.

See in a figure drilling operation perform in lathe machine.


Reaming is a process that consists of the accurate size, round and fine finishing of a hole after the drilling. 

Reamer has the cutting edges and gripped in the drill chuck.

For the reaming at the lathe, the workpiece is rotated at slow speed and reaming is done by tail stock head wheel. 

In the reaming process, always use the coolant


Boring is a process which is used for making a hole. 

In this process, a hole made by turning drill hole or casting hole of a workpiece. 

It is also called internal turning. 

Boring process is used for making an accurate, finished and wide size of hole. 


Grinding at the lathe machine is performed by an special attachment on moving grinding wheel for the external and internal surfaces of a workpiece. 

For the external surface grinding, a workpiece is rotated between the centres and for the internal grinding, a workpiece is gripped at the chuck and then rotated.

See in figure grinding operation performed in a lathe grinder.


So friends in this topic I cover Operation of Lathe Machine as well as parts of lathe machine. 

I hope you clearly understand different types of operation which is involved in Lathe machine. 

Thank you.

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