Work Holding Devices in Lathe Machine and Their Types

Hello friends, Today we are going to tell you about work holding devices in lathe machine.

Basically work holding devices in lathe machine are the lathe machine accessories and function of this holding device we will discuss further in detail.

The means of holding and supporting a work or tool on a lathe machine is called a lathe machine accessories which are performed various operation in lathe machine.

So without wasting any time let’s know work holding devices in lathe machine.


Work Holding Devices in Lathe Machine

Chuck, Face Plate, Lathe Centers, Steady Rest and Mandrels, etc. are common lathe machine accessories and function of this holding tools work as a work holding devices.

There are following work holding devices in lathe machine

  •  Chuck
  •  Centers
  • Steady Rest
  • Carriers
  • Driving Plate
  • Face Plate
  • Mandrel

 Lathe Chuck

Chuck is a one of the type of  a work holding devices in lathe machine which is used in various operation for holding the workpieces or a job.


Types of Lathe Chuck

There are following types of  chuck are used

  • Four Jaw Chuck
  • Three Jaw Chuck
  • Magnetic Chuck
  • Collet Chuck
  • Combination Chuck
  • Air Chuck or Hydraulically Operated Chuck
  • Drill Chuck

See in a figure different types of lathe chuck, which are described in below.

work holding devices in lathe
Types of Lathe Chuck


Four Jaw Chuck

It is also called Independent Jaw Chuck which consists of four jaws and each jaw can be moved separately by chuck 'key'.

These jaws are reversible and have steps made on them, which can be used to mount workpieces or a  job of different sizes. 

This chuck is used to hold regular and irregular shaped jobs, heavy components and large diameter jobs.


Advantages  of Four Jaw Chuck

  1. The job can be true to a precision of 0.02 mm.
  2. The workpieces can be set for the eccentric turning.
  3. Larger diameter jobs can be easily hold using reversible jobs. 
  4. Irregular shaped jobs can be easily held. 
  5. It has more gripping power.

Disadvantages of Four Jaw Chuck

  1. The workpieces setting is more difficult than the three jaw chuck.
  2. It is not suitable for mass production.

Three Jaw Chuck

It is also known as a Universal Chuck, Self-Centric Chuck and Concentric Chuck which consists of three jaws that work at the same time, with this type of chuck having separate internal and external jaws are found. 

In a three-jaw chuck should hold a round job and the hexagonal workpieces.

 

Advantages  of  Three Jaw Chuck

  1. In three jaw chuck cylindrical and hexagonal workpieces can be easily set in the center. 
  2. It is suitable for mass production. 
  3. Setting up jobs is easy.

Magnetic Chuck

The job on this chuck is hold  by magnetic power.

Magnetic chuck is suitable for mass production of thin sectioned jobs and components.

The following types of Magnetic Chuck are found

  1. Permanent Magnetic Chuck
  2. Electromagnetic Chuck

Collet Chuck

Collet chucks are mostly used to hold the jobs less than 25 mm in diameter. 

Collets are found in sizes up to 25 mm in diameter.

Collet chuck is more perfect, saves time in tying the work and increases the speed of production.


Combination Chuck

Generally, it is a four-jaw chuck in which the jaws can be adjusted either independently as the four-jaw or together with the three-jaw chuck. 

This type of chuck is used in places where duplicate workpieces are available. 

A self-centering socket is used in the body of the chuck to tighten the workpieces. 

 

Air Chuck or Hydraulically Operated Chuck

It is used for mass production work as it has quick and effective gripping capability.

Its mechanism consists of a hydraulic or air cylinder mounted on the back end of the headstock and rotating along it. 

Fluid pressure is transmitted to the cylinder by operating the valves. 

It is either manual or automatic. 

The movement of the piston transmits to the jaws and links of the connecting rods, allowing the workpieces to be gripped properly.

 

Drill Chuck

Drill chuck is a tool holding devices used to hold drill bits tool or drill in a drilling machine.


Lathe Centers

The Center is a work  holding devices in lathe that is used to support a long jobs in between headstock and tailstock to carry out a lathe operation. 

Lathe centers are often made of high carbon steel  and then it is hardened, tempered and grinded.

The center which rotates with a job in the nose of the headstock spindle is called a live center.

The center which is set up at the tailstock  is stable and hence it is called the dead center.

Both centers are identical in texture. 

Lubricant for dead center should be used, and lubricants are not required for the live center.

The top angle of the corner point of the lathe centers is 60 ° and the body has a morse taper shank and a tang.

 

Different Types of Lathe Centers

There are following types of lathe centers

  • Ordinary Center
  • Half Center
  • Tipped Center
  • Ball Center
  • Pipe Center
  • Revolving Center
  • Inserted Type Center
  • Self Driving Live Center
  • Female Center
  • Swivel 'V' Center

See in a figure different types of lathe centers, which are described in below.

work holding devices in lathe machine
Types of Lathe Centre

Ordinary Center

It is a common type of center that is used for simple tasks.


Half Center

The tip portion of this center is relieved by less than half. 

It is used when facing the job without disturbing the setting.


Tipped Center

It is a wear resistant center in which the tip of a carbide or hard alloy is brazed in the nose of a simple steel shank.


Ball Center

At the tip of this center, a ball is formed which reduces wear and tear. 

It is particularly suitable for performing taper turning by offset method.


Pipe Center

Its tip is flat and  It is used to support  pipes, shells and hollow-end workpieces. 


Revolving Center

It is a non-friction center, also known as revolving dead center. 

It is used where large and heavy jobs have to be run at high speed. 


Inserted Type Center

It  is a saving center as only a small high speed insert is replaced.


Self Driving Live Center

This center has a points cut around the periphery of the center to give good griping to the job and to get the drive.

It is mounted on the headstock spindle.

It is used when machining the entire length of a job in one setting.

It cannot be used on hard jobs but only on soft jobs.


Female Center

This center is used to support  that types of jobs on which it is not possible to make a countersink hole.


Swivel 'V' Center

Using this center to support  the job in its 'V' part and using drill or drill bits in the headstock spindle to drill holes across the job.


Steady Rest

Steady rest is a type of work holding devices in lathe machine that is used to hold or support long cylinders or thin jobs.

The job is supported by this to maintain a stable position of the job while turning.


Types of Steady Rest

Often the following types of steady rests are used

  • Traveling Steady Rest
  • Fixed Steady Rest
  • Revolving Steady Rest

See types of steady rest in the figure,which are described below

work holding devices in lathe
Types of Steady Rest


Traveling Steady Rest

It is also called follower steady rest which is joined with cross slide on opposite side of the cutting tool. 

It has two adjustable jaw pieces and runs with carriage on the bed.


Fixed Steady Rest

Fixed steady rest can be fixed in any fixed position on the bed of the lathe.

It has three adjustable jaw pieces which are controlled by different screws.


Revolving Steady Rest

Revolving steady rest  is like a fixed steady rest with the lower part fixed on the bed of the lathe. 

It is also used to hold square and hexagonal rods.


Lathe Carriers

The carrier or dog is a work holding devices in lathe machine used to hold a job when it needs to be fixed between the centers.

Work or a job inserted into the hole of a carrier and then tightly fixed.


Types of Lathe Carriers

Often the following types of lathe carriers are used

  • Straight Tail Carrier
  • Bent Tail Carrier
  • Adjustable Carrier

See in the figure types of lathe carriers,which are briefly described below.

work holding devices in lathe
Types of Lathe Carrier


Straight Tail Carrier

The tail of this carrier is straightened which is set against the driving pin of the catch plate, it provides a positive drive to the job. 


Bent Tail Carrier

The tail of this carrier is bent which is attached in the 'U' slot of the catch plate to drive the job.

 

Adjustable Carrier

It is a clamp type carrier which consists of a clamping plate and an adjustable screw. 

It is used to hold small diameter jobs and square and rectangular shaped rods.


Driving Plate

It  is a circular plate used when turning jobs in between centers.

It is used with a straight tail or bent tail carrier to give a positive drive to the job. 


Types of Driving Plate

There are following types of driving plates are used

  • Catch Plate
  • Driving Plate with Pin 
  • Safety Driving Plate

See in a figure different types of driving plate in a lathe machine

work holding devices in lathe
Types of Driving Plate

Catch Plate

This plate consists of a 'U' slot and an elliptical slot in which the bent tail of the lathe carrier is attached.

This requires a shorter length for clamping. 


Driving Plate with Pin 

This plate consists of an ejected pin which locates the straight tail of the lathe carrier.

It provides a positive drive to the workpieces. 


Safety Driving Plate

It is made of cast iron which is similar in shape to a driving plate but has a cover that protects the operator from injury. 

There is also a stepped collar on the back of this driving plate.


Face Plate

This is a circular plate used to perform various turning operations on large flat, irregular shaped jobs, castings, etc.

The face plate is fixed on the lathe spindle and the job can be mounted on it to perform turning operations. 

work holding devices in lathe
Face Plate


Lathe Mandrel

The lathe mandrel is used to hold the workpieces or a job that is already bored or drilled.

The  mandrel is often hardened with tool steel and grinded to a specified size.

It is grinded on a 1: 2000 taper.


Types of Lathe Mandrel

The following types of mandrel are often used

  • Plain Mandrel
  • Stepped mandrel
  • Collar Mandrel
  • Screwed Mandrel
  • Cone Mandrel
  • Gang Mandrel
  • Expansion Mandrel
  • Taper Shank Mandrel

Show in a figure different types of lathe mandrel, which are described below.

work holding devices in lathe machine
Types of Mandrel

Plain Mandrel

This mandrel is more common with a slight taper (1: 2000) that allows the workpieces to griping helps in the right way. 

It is suitable only for one size bore. 


Stepped mandrel

This mandrel has steps with different diameters. 

Different diameter of workpieces can be fitted on this mandrel.


Collar Mandrel

Collars are made on this mandrel, which reduces the weight of the mandrel considerably.

It is used for turning large diameter workpieces. 


Screwed Mandrel

Threads are made at one end of this mandrel and a collar is formed on it.

It is used to mount workpieces that have internal threads. 


Cone Mandrel

This mandrel is used to hold workpieces of different diameters of the hole. 

This mandrel has a solid cone on one side and a sliding cone and nut on the other side which consists of threads.

The workpieces are held onto two cones, and the sliding cone is adjusted and the nut is tightened to hold the workpieces in the correct position.


Gang Mandrel

This mandrel has a parallel body with fixed collar at one end and spacing collar at the other end.

 Its ends are made of threads with a washer and a nut attached to it.

Several identical workpieces can be mounted between fix and spacing collars on this mandrel and clamp the nut tightly.


Expansion Mandrel

This mandrel has a solid mandrel and a slanted sleeve. 

This type of mandrel is more useful for workpieces whose diameters are different from the standard size. 

This type of mandrel is also more useful for repairing workshops.


Taper Shank Mandrel

The taper shank of this mandrel is made to fit in the headstock spindle.

 

So, Here I discussed work holding devices in lathe machine which are the lathe machine accessories and function of this holding tools also known in details.

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