Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions,Types,Operation

Hello friends,

In this topic we are going to know parts of drilling machine and their functions.

Along with we also know that types and operation of drilling machine.


What is Drilling Machine?

It is the simplest and accurate machine, which is used in production shop.

The workpiece is hell stationary means clamped in position and drill bits rotate to make a hole. 

It is designed specifically to perform the operation of drilling and similar operations.

Drill bits are also called as a drills.

Like drilling machine, Milling machine, Slotting machine , planer machine are also used in production shop to perform various types of operation.


Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions

There are following parts of drilling machine and their functions are used in drilling machine

  • Drill Chuck
  • Head
  • Table
  • Column
  • Spindle
  • Drill Base
  • Sleeve
  • Socket
  • Drill Drift
  • Electric Motor
  • Hand Wheel
 
parts of drilling machine and their functions
Parts of Drilling Machine

Drill Chuck

Drill chuck plays very most important role in a drilling machine because it's used as a work holding device

Basically, drill chuck, hold the straight shank cutting tools.

Drill chucks, may be three jaws or four jaws which is also move simultaneously when drilling machine outer sleeve turned.

Teeth are made inside the jaw which is used to hold the drill easily.
And it has a ring nut when rotate it then the jaw opens and closes simultaneously.

Keys are used to tighten the chuck's jaw.

Alloy steel is used to make drill chuck.

Head

The top part of the drilling machine is called the head, which has a spindle that moves in the upward and downward directions.


Table

The table is used to hold the workpiece or a job and can be adjusted by moving it upward or downward direction.


Column

It supports the table and head as well as all other mechanism which is attached to the head.

Cast iron or steel is used to make columns. Because its mechanical properties are of high strength and also hardened.

Spindle

It is used to hold and rotate the drill bits tool. It is fitted with the head of drilling machine.

High carbon chromium steel or steel alloys are used to make the spindle.


Drill Base

It is the most important part of the drilling machine because it carries a whole weight of the drilling machine.

Cast iron or steel material is used to make the base of the drilling machine.

The drill base is very rigid due to made of cast iron material.


Sleeve

Sleeve is used in a drilling machine for the purpose of fed cutting tools into a workpiece or a job.

Drill sleeve is also used to hold the taper shank drills and that type of taper shank drill whose taper size is equal to the taper size of the spindle.

Sleeve are also called as a quick assembly.


Socket

When the diameter of taper shank of a drill is more than the hole of the spindle of the machine, a special sleeve is used on the drill, which is called socket.


Drill Drift

Drill drift is a wide steel strip that is tapped towards the width of the edge which taper angle is 8 ° - 19 °.

It is used for removing the taper shank drills.

Drill drift is also used to remove the drill chuck, sleeve and socket which is fitted in the spindle of the machine.


Electric Motor

The electric motor is used to supply power to the drilling machine. 


Hand Wheel

Hand wheel is a very important part of drilling machine because with the help of this, how much feed is to be given in a job or workpiece is controlled.

The spindle moves in the up and down direction when the hand wheel is rotated.


Methods to Holding the Drill

There are four tricks to hold the drill with the machine as follows

(i) Holding direct in a spindle

 (ii) Using sleeve

(iii) Using the socket

(iv) Using the drill chucks or key.

These devices are used for holding the any types of drill in a drilling machine.

There are some holding devices are also applying to hold the workpiece or a job according to their shape and a size these are follows

• Use of step block

 • Use of drill vice

• Use of V-block

• Use of jig and fixture

 • Use of T-bolt


After the parts of drilling machine and their functions now we will know types of drilling machine.


Types of Drilling Machine

The various types of drilling machines are as follows

  • Portable Drilling Machine
  • Sensitive Drilling Machine
  • Vertical Drilling Machine
  • Automatic Drilling Machine
  • Pneumatic Drilling Machine 
  • Gang Drilling Machine
  • Radial Drilling Machine
  • Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine
  • Deep Hole Drilling Machine


Portable Drilling Machine

The portable drilling machine is used for drilling the small diameter holes in a workpiece or a job.

Portable drilling machine is easy to move itself one place to another place. 

These types of drilling machine perform at high rpm of speed and can be drills up to 12 mm of diameter.

This machine has two types which as follows
  • Hand Drilling Machine
  • Breast Drilling Machine

Sensitive Drilling Machine

It is used for drilling the accurate hole in the workpiece.

It is widely used for light works. Its drilling capacity is more than 20 mm.

There are two orientations of this machine means bench style and floor style.

Vertical Drilling Machine

It is used to make big size holes as compared to hand drill machine. 

It is used where availability of electricity is not possible such as railway line, fabrication and pillar, etc.


 Automatic Drilling Machine

 It is an electrically operated portable drilling machine, which can operate with both AC and DC supply. 

It has much more speed than above discussed machines and can easily be used to make the hole anywhere.

 There are two types of automatic drilling machines, which are as follows.

Light duty

Heavy duty

Pneumatic Drilling Machine 

This machine is operated by air pressure and used for maintenance of the ship because the electrical machine can not work in water.

Gang Drilling Machine

Gang drilling machine use multiple number of single spindle drilling machine columns which is placed in side by side on a common base and in gang drilling machine also used common worktable.

Radial Drilling Machine

Radial drilling machine is used for heavy workpiece and it is used for making holes medium size to large size.

In radial drilling machine have a heavy round vertical column support horizontal arm which is supported drill head.

Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine

Multiple spindle drilling machine is mostly used in an industry or factories for mass production of work.

Through multiple spindle drilling machine can drill a number of holes in any job or workpiece at the same time and also produce same pattern and same size of the hole in a number of workpiece.

Deep Hole Drilling Machine

Deep hole drilling machine used flutes are in a straight manner in which coolant fluid is injected and through drill's hollow body reach to the cutting face. 

It has depth diameter ratio of 300 : 1.

It is widely used for mould making, die, making and the manufacturing of the wood wind musical instrument.

Now, we will know operation of drilling machine,


Operation of Drilling Machine

A drill machine performs many types of operations. 

We can say drilling operation is done for many purposes. Some of them are discussed below

This all operation can also perform in a  lathe machine.

Drilling

In this process, a hole is made in a solid working by rotating drill.

Reaming

In reaming process previous size of hole is enlarging in perfect accuracy manner.

It is a multi-tooth cutting tool. 

In the reaming, the accuracy of +/- 0.005 mm can be achieved.

Boring

Boring operation is a drilling machine operation in which enlarging the hole of a workpiece or a job.

Boring operation is done after drilling and use single point cutting tool.

Through boring operation we produce accurate and finishing job.


Counter Boring

Counter boring is a drilling machine operation in which enlarging the bore.

And this operation always performs after drilling .

In this process use multipoint cutting tool.

This operation is used to made cylindrical hole as per requirement.


Counter Sinking

Counter sinking operation is performed when requirement of making conical edge at any angle.

This operation also performed after drilling.

The cone angles are of 60°, 82°, 90°, 100°, 110 and 120°.

Spot Facing

The holes made in the process of making flat surface on bore face or upper face of a hole in the casted job are called spot facing.


Tapping

It is the process by which internal threads are formed. 

It is performed either by hand or machine. 

Minor diameter of the thread drilled and then tapping is done.

Lapping

In this process firstly two workpieces rubbed together that is called lapping and then after fix both the job in accurate manner after that drilling is performed.

Trepanning

The process of making big diameter hole or cutting of round job by drill machine is called trepanning. 

In this system, two bits are fitted in a holder centre at same distance and in the middle, a hole size pilot is fitted.

 

So, Friends here I discussed parts of drilling machine and their functions ,types, operation.

I hope you all enjoy this topic and clearly understand all aspects related to drilling machine.


Thank You

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