Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions,Types,Operation

Hello friends, In this topic, we are going to know parts of drilling machine and their functions.

Along with we also know the types and operation of drilling machines.

So, without wasting time let's get to know a complete overview of the drilling machine.


What is Drilling Machine?

It is the simplest and most accurate machine, which is used in the production shops.

The workpiece is held stationary means clamped in position and drill bits rotate to make a hole. 

It is designed specifically to perform the operation of drilling and similar operations.

Drill bits are also called drills.

Like drilling machines, milling machines, slotting machines, planer machines are also used in production shops to perform various types of operations.


Parts of Drilling Machine and Their Functions

There are the following parts of drilling machine and their functions are used in drilling machine:

  • Drill Chuck
  • Head
  • Table
  • Column
  • Spindle
  • Drill Base
  • Sleeve
  • Socket
  • Drill Drift
  • Electric Motor
  • Hand Wheel
 
See in the figure various parts of drilling machine which are described below in detail.

parts of drilling machine and their functions
Parts of Drilling Machine

Drill Chuck

Drill chuck plays a very most important role in a drilling machine because it's used as a work holding device.

Basically, drill chuck, hold the straight shank cutting tools.

Drill chucks may be three jaws or four jaws which also move simultaneously when drilling machine outer sleeve turned.

Teeth are made inside the jaw which is used to hold the drill easily.

And it has a ring nut when rotate it then the jaw opens and closes simultaneously.

Keys are used to tighten the chuck's jaw.

Alloy steel is used to make drill chuck.

Head

The top part of the drilling machine is called the head, which has a spindle that moves in upward and downward directions.


Table

The table is used to hold the workpiece or a job and can be adjusted by moving it upward or downward direction.


Column

It supports the table and head as well as all other mechanisms which are attached to the head.

Cast iron or steel is used to make columns. 

Because its mechanical properties are of high strength and also hardened.


Spindle

It is used to hold and rotate the drill bits tool. It is fitted with the head of the drilling machine.

High carbon chromium steel or steel alloys are used to make the spindle.


Drill Base

It is the most important part of the drilling machine because it carries the whole weight of the drilling machine.

Cast iron or steel material is used to make the base of the drilling machine.

The drill base is very rigid due to being made of cast iron material.


Sleeve

The sleeve is used in a drilling machine for the purpose of fed cutting tools into a workpiece or a job.

Drill sleeve is also used to hold the taper shank drills and that type of taper shank drill whose taper size is equal to the taper size of the spindle.

Sleeves are also called quick assembly.


Socket

When the diameter of the taper shank of a drill is more than the hole of the spindle of the machine, a special sleeve is used on the drill, which is called a socket.


Drill Drift

Drill drift is a wide steel strip that is tapped towards the width of the edge which a taper angle is 8 ° - 19 °.

It is used for removing the taper shank drills.

Drill drift is also used to remove the drill chuck, sleeve, and socket which is fitted in the spindle of the machine.


Electric Motor

The electric motor is used to supply power to the drilling machine. 


Hand Wheel

Hand wheel is a very important part of the drilling machine because with the help of this, how much feed is to be given in a job or workpiece is controlled.

The spindle moves in the up and down direction when the hand wheel is rotated.


Methods to Holding the Drill

There are four tricks to hold the drill with the machine as follows:

  • Holding direct in a spindle
  • Using a sleeve
  • Using the socket
  • Using the drill chucks or key

These devices are used for holding any type of drill in a drilling machine.


There are some holding devices that are also applied to hold the workpiece or a job according to their shape and size these are following:


After the parts of the drilling machine and their functions now we will know the types of drilling machine.


Types of Drilling Machine

The various types of drilling machines are as follows:

  • Portable Drilling Machine
  • Sensitive Drilling Machine
  • Vertical Drilling Machine
  • Automatic Drilling Machine
  • Pneumatic Drilling Machine 
  • Gang Drilling Machine
  • Radial Drilling Machine
  • Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine
  • Deep Hole Drilling Machine


Portable Drilling Machine

The portable drilling machine is used for drilling the small diameter of holes in a workpiece or a job.

A portable drilling machine is easy to move from one place to another place. 

These types of drilling machines perform at high rpm of speed and can be drilled up to 12 mm in diameter.

This machine has two types which are as follows:
  • Hand Drilling Machine
  • Breast Drilling Machine

Sensitive Drilling Machine

It is used for drilling the accurate hole in the workpiece.

It is widely used for light works. Its drilling capacity is more than 20 mm.

There are two orientations of this machine means bench style and floor style.

Vertical Drilling Machine

It is used to make big size holes as compared to a hand drill machine. 

It is used where availability of electricity is not possible such as railway line, fabrication, pillar, etc.


Automatic Drilling Machine

It is an electrically operated portable drilling machine, which can operate with both AC and DC supplies. 

It has much more speed than the above discussed machines and can easily be used to make the hole anywhere.

There are two types of automatic drilling machines, which are as follows:

  • Light duty
  • Heavy duty

Pneumatic Drilling Machine 

This machine is operated by air pressure and used for maintenance of the ship because the electrical machine can not work in water.

Gang Drilling Machine

Gang drilling machine uses multiple numbers of single spindle drilling machine columns which are placed side by side on a common base and in gang drilling machine also used common worktable.

Radial Drilling Machine

A radial drilling machine is used for heavy workpieces and it is used for making holes medium size to large size.

In radial drilling machine have a heavy round vertical column support horizontal arm which is supported drill head.

Multiple Spindle Drilling Machine

Multiple spindle drilling machine is mostly used in industry or factories for mass production of work.

Through multiple spindle drilling machines can drill a number of holes in any job or workpiece at the same time and also produce the same pattern and same size of the hole in a number of workpieces.

Deep Hole Drilling Machine

Deep hole drilling machine used flutes are in a straight manner in which coolant fluid is injected and through drill's hollow body reach to the cutting face. 

It has a depth diameter ratio of 300: 1.

It is widely used for mold making, die, making, and the manufacturing of the wood wind musical instrument.

Now, we will know the operation of the drilling machine,


Operation of Drilling Machine

A drilling machine performs many types of operations. 

We can say drilling operation is done for many purposes. Some of them are discussed below.

This all operation can also perform in a  lathe machine.

Drilling

In this process, a hole is made in a solid working by a rotating drill.

Reaming

In reaming process previous size of the hole is enlarging in a perfect accuracy manner.

It is a multi-tooth cutting tool. 

In the reaming, the accuracy of +/- 0.005 mm can be achieved.

Boring

A boring operation is a drilling machine operation that enlarges the hole of a workpiece or a job.

Boring operation is done after drilling and using a single point cutting tool.

Through the boring operations, we produce accurate and finishing jobs.


Also Read: difference between drilling and boring.


Counter Boring

Counter boring is a drilling machine operation in which enlarging the bore.

And this operation is always performed after drilling.

In this process use a multipoint cutting tool.

This operation is used to make a cylindrical hole as per requirement.


Counter Sinking

Counter sinking operation is performed when required of making conical edge at any angle.

This operation was also performed after drilling.

The cone angles are of 60°, 82°, 90°, 100°, 110 and 120°.

Spot Facing

The holes made in the process of making flat surfaces on the bore face or upper face of a hole in the casted job are called spot facing.


Tapping

It is the process by which internal threads are formed. 

It is performed either by hand or machine. 

The minor diameter of the thread is drilled and then tapping is done.

Lapping

In this process firstly two workpieces are rubbed together which is called lapping and then after fixing both the job in an accurate manner after that drilling is performed.

Trepanning

The process of making a big diameter hole or cutting of round job by drill machine is called trepanning. 

In this system, two bits are fitted in a holder center at the same distance and in the middle, a hole size pilot is fitted.

 

So, Friends here I discussed parts of drilling machines and their functions, types, operations.

I hope you all enjoy this topic and clearly understand all aspects related to drilling machines.

For more articles like this, you can also find me on google news.


Thank You

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6 Comments

Rakhi said…
Very nice information sir 👌👊
MH Srkar said…
nice information thanks a lot ❤❤