Parts of Slotting Machine & Their Types,Operation,Mechanism

Hello friends, In this topic we are going to know complete details of slotting machine like parts of slotting machine, types of slotting machine, slotting machine mechanism, slotting machine operation, etc.

Slotting machine is like a shaper machine, the only difference being that its ram moves across the vertical plane. 

It is used for more heavy work where the tool needs to be cut towards the table of the machine.

A vertical shaper and a slotting machine are almost identical in terms of their design, operation and use.  

The only difference is that the ram in the vertical shaper can reciprocate in any angle with the horizontal table in addition to the vertical stroke.  

The slotting machine is used for cutting grooves, keyways and slots of various sizes, making both internal and external surfaces, regular and irregular surfaces, cutting internal and external gears and other such operations which can not be done easily on other machine tools.

What is Slotting Machine

A slotting machine is a type of reciprocating machine in which ram holds the tool and moves downward and upward only in the vertical axis and produces a variety of products such as keyways, grooves, slots, etc.

It is also called as a slotter machine.

Slotting Machine is also a part of manufacturing process as like lathe machine, drilling machine, milling machine, planer machine, etc.

In a drilling machine used drill bits and for milling machine used a milling cutters to perform various operation.

Parts of Slotting Machine 

The main parts of slotting machine are described below.
  • Base or Bed  
  • Column
  • Saddle
  • Cross-slide
  • Rotary Table  
  • Ram
  • Tool Head
  • Speed ​​Gear Box

See in figure different parts of slotting machine which are described below

parts of slotting machine
Parts of Slotting Machine

Base or Bed  

It is strengthened so that it can withstand all the cutting force and full load of the machine. 

Square or dovetail guideways are made for the saddle on the top of the bed.  

The material used for making the base is cast iron.


A column is the vertical member that is cast with the base.  

In these parts of slotting machine, the driving mechanism and the feed mechanism of the ram are located. 

Its front vertical face is finished in the precision to which the ram reciprocates.  

It is also made up of cast iron.


It is mounted on the guideways and can be moved towards the column or away from the column using power or hand controls to feed the work lengthwise. 

The top face of the saddle is finished in precision to provide guideways for the cross slide.  


It is mounted on the guideways of the saddle and can be moved parallel to the face of the column.

The movement of the slide is controlled by hand or power to provide a cross feed supply.

Rotary Table   

A rotary table is a circular table which is mounted on the top of a cross slide.  

A rotary table is used for holding the workpiece or a job.

Work is hold on the slotter's table by vice, 'T' bolts and clamps or special fixtures.

This table can be rotated by rotating a worm, the worm is a mashed with the worm gear.

All these gears arrangements are made inside the table.

The table can be rotated by hand or power.  

'T' slots on the top face of this table are cut so that any type of work or a job can be held using various clamping devices. 

Circular or contour surfaces can be made with rotary tables. 


Ram is the very most important parts of slotting machine because through movement of ram workpiece or a job cut and produce a desired shape.

It is fitted with a tool head and it reciprocates in upward and downward direction through guideways.

It is mounted on the guideways of the column.

A slot is cut on the body of the ram to change the position of the stroke. 

Tool Head  

In some slotting machines, it is part of the ram.

It is used to hold the tool tightly.


A single point cutting tools are used in a slotting machine during removing any type of materials.

Speed ​​Gear Box 

In a speed gear box, power is transmitted from the main drive gear box to the sliding gears of the speed gear box via the drive shaft.  

Sliding gears can be shifted to obtain the required ram speed.

Types of Slotting Machine

There are following types of slotting machine used
  • General Purpose Slotting Machine
  • Precision Tool Room Slotting Machine
  • Puncher Slotting Machine
  • Die Slotting Machine
  • Production Slotting Machine
  • Locomotive Frame Slotting Machine
  • Traveling Head Slotting Machine  

General Purpose Slotting Machine 

It is used for simple slotting operations and is found in many sizes. 

Precision Tool Room Slotting Machine  

It is used for precision work. 

The column of these types of slotting machine can be tilted for angular movement of the tools.

It also has a micrometers column for fine adjustment.

Puncher Slotting Machine

Puncher slotter machines are the heavy duty types of slotting machine which is widely used for machining a heavy workpieces or a jobs like forging,casting materials.

Die Slotting Machine  

This type of slotting machine is basically used for machining a cavity in a blank die.

The movement of the work table in this slotter machine also can be transverse direction.

Production Slotting Machine

This type of slotter machine is used where large mass production required.

Gear cutting and keyway can make easily through these types of slotting machine.

Locomotive Frame Slotting Machine 

It is a large machine with two or three slotting heads that can operate independently. 

These types of slotting machine is particularly suitable for finishing a locomotive frames.  

Traveling Head Slotting Machine  

This machine has a horizontal shaping movement in addition to vertical shaping movement.

Slotting Machine Mechanism

There are following slotting machine mechanism used,
  • Ram Drive Mechanism
  • Feed Mechanism

RAM Drive Mechanism 

A tool fitted with ram in a slotter moves vertically up and down and cuts only in downward strokes. 

Common mechanisms used for this are quick return mechanism such as hydraulic drive, variable speed reversible motor drive and slotted disk mechanism are also used in the slotter.  

Hydraulic Drives

Hydraulic drives are used in machines that need to be used for precision or tool room work. 

The vibration in the hydraulic drive is minimal due to which the surface finish improves.  

Variable Speed Reversible Motor Drive

Larger machines are powered by variable speed reversible motors.  

A special motor, which changes its speed according to the field current applied, is used.

Slotted Disk Mechanism

These types of slotting machine mechanism made up of gear, pinion, crank and with a slotted disc.

Quick Return Mechanism working principle in Slotting Machine

The downward stroke in the slotter is the cutting stroke and the upward stroke is the return (or idol) stroke.

Clearly see in the figure when slotted link rotates then bull gear rotates.  

slotting machine mechanism

When the block is at 'A', the ram is at the bottom position and when the block is at 'B', the ram is at the top position.  

The arc ACB for the cutting stroke and the arc BDA for the return stroke. 

Because the arc ACB is larger than the arc BDA, the cutting stroke time is longer than the return stroke time.

Feed Mechanism of Slotting Machine

In the slotter the feed is delivered through the table.

A slotting machine has three types of feed movements.

In slotting feed movement for table is following 
  • Longitudinal Feed
  • Cross Feed
  • Circular

Longitudinal Feed

If the table is fed towards or away from the face of the column in vertical direction, then this feed movement is called longitudinal. 

Cross Feed

If the table is fed parallel to the face of the column, then this feed movement is called cross feed.  


If the table is rotated on the vertical axis, then this feed movement is called as circular. 

After discussing in slotting feed movement for table now we will know feed mechanism working principle.

Feed Mechanism Working Principle in Slotting Machine

Like the shaper or planer, the feed movement of the slotter is the same and is given at the beginning of the cutting stroke.  

Hand or power can be used to provide feed movement.  

The hand feed is given by rotating the individual feed screws.  

The power feed mechanism is shown in the figure.

slotting machine mechanism

A cam groove is cut on a face of the bull gear along which the roller slides.  

As the bull gear rotates, the roller with the lever moving in the contour of the cam groove moves up and down during a short section of the wheel gear.

The cam groove is cut in such a way that the movement of the lever can only take place at the beginning of the cutting stroke.

Slotting Machine Operation

There are following operation perform in slotting machine.

  • Machining Flat Surfaces 
  • Machining Circular Surface
  • Machining Irregular Surfaces 
  • Machining of slots, keys and grooves

See in figure different types of slotting machine operation

types of slotting machine operation
Slotting Machine Operation

Machining Flat Surfaces 

In a slotting machine, external and internal flat surfaces can be made easily on a workpiece.

The workpiece is properly held to the table, and the stroke length and position are adjusted.

Machining Circular Surface

The inner and outer surfaces of a cylinder can be machined on a slotting machine. 

While machining, the feeding is done by a rotary table feed screw.

Machining Irregular Surfaces  

A contoured surface can be machined on the workpiece by assembling the cross, longitudinal, and rotary feed movements of the table.  

Machining of slots, keys and grooves  

External and internal grooves can be cut on a slotting machine. 

Slotters are used specially to cut internal grooves that are difficult to cut on other machines.

FAQ for Slotting Machine

Which of the following part of slotting machine is used to hold the tool?

Tool head is the part of slotting machine which is used to hold the tool.

Slotted disc mechanism is used for?

Basically slotting machine mechanism is made up of gear,pinion,crank and slotted disc.

These combination is called as slotted disc mechanism which is used in quick return mechanism.

In slotting feed movement for table is?

In slotting feed movement for table is used longitudinal,cross and circular feed.

What is the function of ram in a slotting machine?

The main function of ram in a slotting machine is used to reciprocates the tool head by which workpiece or a job to be cut and produce a desired shape.

Which cutting tool used in a slotting machine?

Always used single point cutting tool in a slotting machine.


So, here I discussed complete details of slotting machine like parts of slotting machine, types of slotting machine, slotting machine operation as well as also discussed in slotting feed movement for table like longitudinal,cross and circular feed.

I hope you all like these topics.

Thank You

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