Parts of Slotting Machine & Their Types,Operation,Mechanism

Hello friends, In this topic, we are going to know complete details of slotting machines such as parts of slotting machines, types of slotting machines, slotting machine mechanisms, slotting machine operations, etc.

A slotting machine is like a shaper machine, the only difference being that its ram moves across the vertical plane. 

It is used for more heavy work where the tool needs to be cut towards the table of the machine.

A vertical shaper and a slotting machine are almost identical in terms of their design, operation, and use.  

The only difference is that the ram in the vertical shaper can reciprocate at any angle with the horizontal table in addition to the vertical stroke.  

The slotting machine is used for cutting grooves, keyways, and slots of various sizes, making both internal and external surfaces, regular and irregular surfaces, cutting internal and external gears, and other such operations which can not be done easily on other machine tools.

What is Slotting Machine

A slotting machine is a type of reciprocating machine in which the ram holds the tool and moves downward and upward only in the vertical axis and produces a variety of products such as keyways, grooves, slots, etc.

It is also called a slotter machine.

Slotting Machine is also a part of the manufacturing process like lathe machine, drilling machine, milling machine, planer machine, etc.

A drilling machine used drill bits and for milling machine used a milling cutter to perform the various operations.

Parts of Slotting Machine 

The main parts of the slotting machine are described below:
  • Base or Bed  
  • Column
  • Saddle
  • Cross-slide
  • Rotary Table  
  • Ram
  • Tool Head
  • Speed ​​Gear Box

See in figure different parts of slotting machine which is described below in detail.

parts of slotting machine
Parts of Slotting Machine

Base or Bed  

It is strengthened so that it can withstand all the cutting force and full load of the machine. 

Square or dovetail guideways are made for the saddle on the top of the bed.  

The material used for making the base is cast iron.


A column is a vertical member that is cast with the base.  

In these parts of the slotting machine, the driving mechanism and the feed mechanism of the ram are located. 

Its front vertical face is finished in the precision to which the ram reciprocates.  

It is also made up of cast iron.


It is mounted on the guideways and can be moved towards the column or away from the column using power or hand controls to feed the work lengthwise. 

The top face of the saddle is finished in precision to provide guideways for the cross slide.   


It is mounted on the guideways of the saddle and can be moved parallel to the face of the column.

The movement of the slide is controlled by hand or power to provide a cross-feed supply.

Rotary Table   

A rotary table is a circular table that is mounted on the top of a cross slide.  

A rotary table is used for holding the workpiece or a job.

Work is held on the slotter's table by vice, 'T' bolts and clamps or special fixtures.

This table can be rotated by rotating a worm, the worm is mashed with the worm gear.

All these gears arrangements are made inside the table.

The table can be rotated by hand or power.  

'T' slots on the top face of this table are cut so that any type of work or a job can be held using various clamping devices. 

Circular or contour surfaces can be made with rotary tables.  


Ram is the very most important part of slotting machine because through the movement of ram workpiece or a job cut and produce the desired shape.

It is fitted with a tool head and it reciprocates in an upward and downward direction through guideways.

It is mounted on the guideways of the column.

A slot is cut on the body of the ram to change the position of the stroke. 

Tool Head  

In some slotting machines, it is part of the ram.

It is used to hold the tool tightly.


A single point cutting tool is used in a slotting machine during removing any type of material.

Speed ​​Gear Box 

In a speed gear box, power is transmitted from the main drive gear box to the sliding gears of the speed gear box via the drive shaft

Sliding gears can be shifted to obtain the required ram speed.

Types of Slotting Machine

There are the following types of slotting machines used:
  • General Purpose Slotting Machine
  • Precision Tool Room Slotting Machine
  • Puncher Slotting Machine
  • Die Slotting Machine
  • Production Slotting Machine
  • Locomotive Frame Slotting Machine
  • Traveling Head Slotting Machine  

General Purpose Slotting Machine 

It is used for simple slotting operations and is found in many sizes. 

Precision Tool Room Slotting Machine  

It is used for precision work. 

The column of these types of slotting machines can be tilted for angular movement of the tools.

It also has a micrometers column for fine adjustment.

Puncher Slotting Machine

Puncher slotter machines are heavy duty types of slotting machine which is widely used for machining heavy workpieces or jobs like forging, casting materials.

Die Slotting Machine  

This type of slotting machine is basically used for machining a cavity in a blank die.

The movement of the worktable in this slotter machine also can be the transverse direction.

Production Slotting Machine

This type of slotter machine is used where large mass production is required.

Gear cutting and keyway can make easily through these types of slotting machines.

Locomotive Frame Slotting Machine 

It is a large machine with two or three slotting heads that can operate independently. 

This type of slotting machine is particularly suitable for finishing a locomotive frame.  

Traveling Head Slotting Machine  

This machine has a horizontal shaping movement in addition to vertical shaping movement.

Slotting Machine Mechanism

There are the following slotting machine mechanisms used:
  • Ram Drive Mechanism
  • Feed Mechanism

RAM Drive Mechanism 

A tool fitted with a ram in a slotter moves vertically up and down and cuts only in downward strokes. 

Common mechanisms used for this are quick return mechanisms such as hydraulic drive, variable speed reversible motor drive and slotted disk mechanism are also used in the slotter.  

Hydraulic Drives

Hydraulic drives are used in machines that need to be used for precision or tool room work. 

The vibration in the hydraulic drive is minimal due to which the surface finish improves.  

Variable Speed Reversible Motor Drive

Larger machines are powered by variable speed reversible motors.  

A special motor, which changes its speed according to the field current applied, is used.

Slotted Disk Mechanism

These types of slotting machine mechanisms are made up of gear, pinion, crank, and a slotted disc.

Quick Return Mechanism working principle in Slotting Machine

The downward stroke in the slotter is the cutting stroke and the upward stroke is the return (or idol) stroke.

Clearly seen in the figure when the slotted link rotates then bull gear rotates.  

slotting machine mechanism

When the block is at 'A', the ram is at the bottom position and when the block is at 'B', the ram is at the top position.  

The arc ACB for the cutting stroke and the arc BDA for the return stroke. 

Because the arc ACB is larger than the arc BDA, the cutting stroke time is longer than the return stroke time.

Feed Mechanism of Slotting Machine

In the slotter, the feed is delivered through the table.

A slotting machine has three types of feed movements.

In slotting feed movement for the table is following: 
  • Longitudinal Feed
  • Cross Feed
  • Circular

Longitudinal Feed

If the table is fed towards or away from the face of the column in the vertical direction, then this feed movement is called longitudinal. 

Cross Feed

If the table is fed parallel to the face of the column, then this feed movement is called a cross feed.  


If the table is rotated on the vertical axis, then this feed movement is called circular. 

After discussing slotting feed movement for the table now we will know the feed mechanism working principle.

Feed Mechanism Working Principle in Slotting Machine

Like the shaper or planer, the feed movement of the slotter is the same and is given at the beginning of the cutting stroke.  

Hand or power can be used to provide feed movement. 

The hand feed is given by rotating the individual feed screws.  

The power feed mechanism is shown in the figure.

slotting machine mechanism

A cam groove is cut on the face of the bull gear along which the roller slides.  

As the bull gear rotates, the roller with the lever moving in the contour of the cam groove moves up and down during a short section of the wheel gear.

The cam groove is cut in such a way that the movement of the lever can only take place at the beginning of the cutting stroke.

Slotting Machine Operation

There are the following operations performed in the slotting machines.

  • Machining Flat Surfaces 
  • Machining Circular Surface
  • Machining Irregular Surfaces 
  • Machining of slots, keys, and grooves

See in figure different types of slotting machine operation which is described below in detail.

types of slotting machine operation
Slotting Machine Operation

Machining Flat Surfaces 

In a slotting machine, external and internal flat surfaces can be made easily on a workpiece.

The workpiece is properly held to the table, and the stroke length and position are adjusted.

Machining Circular Surface

The inner and outer surfaces of a cylinder can be machined on a slotting machine. 

While machining, the feeding is done by a rotary table feed screw.

Machining Irregular Surfaces  

A contoured surface can be machined on the workpiece by assembling the cross, longitudinal, and rotary feed movements of the table.  

Machining of slots, keys, and grooves  

External and internal grooves can be cut on a slotting machine. 

Slotters are used especially to cut internal grooves that are difficult to cut on other machines.

FAQ for Slotting Machine

Which of the following part of slotting machine is used to hold the tool?

Tool head is the part of slotting machine which is used to hold the tool.

Slotted disc mechanism is used for?

Basically slotting machine mechanism is made up of gear,pinion,crank and slotted disc.

These combination is called as slotted disc mechanism which is used in quick return mechanism.

In slotting feed movement for table is?

In slotting feed movement for table is used longitudinal,cross and circular feed.

What is the function of ram in a slotting machine?

The main function of ram in a slotting machine is used to reciprocates the tool head by which workpiece or a job to be cut and produce a desired shape.

Which cutting tool used in a slotting machine?

Always used single point cutting tool in a slotting machine.


So, here I discussed complete details of slotting machine like parts of slotting machine, types of slotting machine, slotting machine operation as well as also discussed in slotting feed movement for table like longitudinal, cross and circular feed.

I hope you all like these topics.

Thank You

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Unknown said…
Can you please upload information about safety in safety equipment in a workshop