Types of Chip Breakers and Their Uses

Hello friends today, we will learn about types of chip breakers that play a very most important role in the machining process.


During machining processes through a lathe machine, planer machine, slotting machine, etc. Chips are formed which are very hot and hard.


If continue chips are formed and not broken then it can be dangerous to the machine operator as well as a cutting tool tip.


Chips are not broken which means it can adversely affect the machining in the following ways,

  1. Spoilage the cutting edge tool wear occurred.
  2. Raising temperature
  3. Poor surface finish 
  4. Hazardous to the machine operator


To avoid these, two methods are adopted, the first is the proper selection of cutting conditions and the second is the chip breaker is used to break the chips.

Also Read: What is Chip Thickness Ratio?


So without wasting time let's get started to know the types of chip breakers.


Types of chips breakers  

Usually, the following types of chip breakers are used:

  • Step or Shelf Chip Breaker 
  • Groove and Ridge Chip Breaker 
  • Universal Chip Breaker 
  • Separate Chip Breaker


Show in the figure type of chip breaker which is described in detail below.


types of chip breakers
Types of Chip Breakers


Step or Shelf Chip Breaker 

This type of chip breaker is used for carbide tipped tools and before leaving the tool, the chip is prevented from becoming a continuous chip by swirling or breaking it, for which a small step or shelf is sometimes grinded on the face of the tool.


Groove and Ridge Chip Breaker 


This is parallel to the groove cutting edge and it is made on a special electric spark erosion device.  


This groove is 2.5 to 3 mm wide by 0.1 to 0.4 mm deep and has a radius of 1.5 to 3 mm.


In these types of chip breakers, narrow ridges or land is formed along the cutting edge to provide strength.  


The tool with this chip breaker reduces the power consumption as compared to the shelf or step chip breaker.  


Often tools with this chip breaker are used.


Universal Chip Breaker 

It consists of a shank with which a curved profiled steel block is clamped over the tip of the tool using bolts which is a more reliable chip breaker.  


The chip emitting at high velocity must follow the profile of the active surface and break into smaller pieces (5 to 10 mm Length).


Separate Chip Breakers 


These chip breakers are used for successful high-velocity turning of ductile metals and many modern era designs.  


A separate chip breaker can be divided into two types.

  • Fixed Type Separate Chip Breaker
  • Adjustable Type Separate Chip Breaker

See in figure fixed type and adjustable type separate chip breaker which is described below.

types of seperate chip breakers

Fixed Type Separate Chip Breaker

It consists of a bent shank and a cemented carbide tip brazing at the bent end.  


The chip protrudes against the tip of the work and breaks or becomes curled and moves to the side.  


This type of chip breaker has many disadvantages such as the power consumption for cutting is high.


If the chip is not clamped tightly to the face of the tool, it may move between the face of the tool and the chip breaker, and further operation becomes impossible.  


The slightest change in the feed, speed, or mechanical properties of the machined material causes it to stop operating properly.


Adjustable Type Separate Chip Breaker

It consists of a shank on which an angle piece is mounted.  


The brazing cemented carbide tip is clamped using a face grinding bolt.


The face piece can be adjusted with reference to the angle piece and can be swiveled with a bolt due to the slot.  


This type of chip breaker is more universal in operation than the fixed type separates chip breaker.



I hope that I have cleared all your doubts related to types of chip breakers.


If you have still any doubts about this topic, then you can ask me anything through comments or direct mail me.


Thank You.

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